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Optimalisasi gizi dan kesehatan dalam 1000 hari pertama kelahiran

Mantingan, Program Studi Ilmu Gizi kembali menggelar Kuliah bersama pembicara Bapak Nuryanto, S.Gz., M.Gizi Dosen Gizi Universitas Diponegoro dan juga Peneliti tentang Masalah Stunting. Kuliah Pakar tersebut diadakan di Gedung Pasca Sarjana Universitas Darussalam Gontor yang terletak di Mantingan, Ngawi, Jawa Timur.

Diadakan kuliah pakar ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan mahasiswi dan dosen tentang Penyelesaian Masalah Stunting Melalui 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan Berbasis Evidence (Evidance-Base).

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Faktor lain yang berhubungan dengan stunting adalah asupan ASI Eksklusif pada balita. Penelitian di Ethiopia Selatan membuktikan bahwa balita yang tidak mendapatkan ASI eksklusif selama 6 bulan berisiko tinggi mengalami stunting. Status sosial ekonomi keluarga seperti pendapatan keluarga, pendidikan orang tua, pengetahuan ibu tentang gizi, dan jumlah anggota keluarga secara tidak langsung dapat berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting. Hasil Riskesdas (2013) menunjukkan bahwa kejadian stunting balita banyak dipengaruhi oleh pendapatan dan pendidikan orang tua yang rendah.

Balita Kerdil atau Stunting tidak hanya disebabkan oleh faktor gizi buruk yang dialami oleh ibu hamil maupun anak balita, akan tetapi disebabkan oleh banyak faktor,  secara umum beberapa penyebab stunting ialah Praktek pengasuhan yang kurang baik, termasuk kurangnya pengetahuan ibu mengenai kesehatan dan gizi sebelum dan pada masa kehamilan, serta setelah ibu melahirkan.

Masih terbatasnya layanan kesehatan termasuk layanan ANC-Ante Natal Care (pelayanan kesehatan untuk ibu selama masa kehamilan), Post Natal Care dan pembelajaran dini yang berkualitas. Faktor lainnya yaitu kurangnya akses air bersih dan sanitasi yang baik serta masih kurangnya akses keluarga untuk mendapatkan makanan bergizi karena daya beli masyarakat rendah.

Pada akhirnya secara luas stunting akan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan ekonomi, meningkatkan kemiskinan dan memperlebar ketimpangan ekonomi dan sosial. Kemandirian keluarga merupakan hal penting dalam mencegah permasalahan gizi ini berlansung lebih lanjut. Masyarakat perlu mendapatkan edukasi mengenai gizi dan kesehatan.

Menurut Doddy Izwardi Direktur Bina Gizi, Direktorat Jenderal Bina Gizi dan Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak, Kementerian Kesehatan RI, bahwa yang paling vital adalah membangun sumber dayanya. Dengan kemandirian keluarga yaitu pengetahuan dan sikap orang tua terkait pemberian makanan yang memenuhi gizi seimbang, stunting bisa terhindar yaitu melalui optimalisasi gizi dan kesehatan dalam 1000 hari pertama kelahiran yaitu dari masa kehamilan hingga golden age usia 2 tahun.

Program gizi yang telah dilakukan oleh pemerintah saat ini telah memberikan kontribusi terhadap penanggulangan masalah gizi yang ada. Upaya yang perlu dilakukan ke depan adalah percepatan perbaikan gizi yang dalam hal ini dinyatakan pemerintah melalui peraturan presiden nomor 42 tahun 2013 tentang Gerakan Nasional Percepatan Perbaikan Gizi dengan prioritas Seribu Hari Pertama Kehidupan atau 1000 HPK.

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