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Kesegaran Ikan Pasca Panen

Ikan sering menjadi sumber makanan protein berkualitas tinggi lebih murah daripada daging, namun ikan sangat rentan terhadap kerusakan dan pembusukan bila tanpa tindakan pengawet atau pemprosesan. Proses pembusukan akan terjadi segera setelah ikan mengalami kematian.

Hal itu disebabkan mekanisme pertahanan alami ikan tidak berfungsi secara normal. Semenjak ikan mengalami kematian, maka akan terjadi serangkaian proses perubahan yang semuanya mengarah pada penurunan kesegaran dan akhirnya pembusukan. Penurunan kesegaran berkaitan dengan energi (glikogen) yang dikandung oleh ikan.

Kesegaran ikan tidak bisa ditingkatkan tetapi proses perubahanya dapat dihambat sehingga kesegaran ikan dapat dipertahankan lebih lama. Ikan akan membusuk 12-20 jam setelah ditangkap atau dipanen, tergantung jenis dan kondisi ikan, cara penangkapan, carapenanganan dan kondisi lingkungan. Ikan dengan kandungan glikogen yang tinggi mampu mempertahankan kesegarannya lebih lama.

Kondisi ikan dipengaruhi oleh kerusakan fisik, jumlah populasi mikroba pembusuk. Kerusakan fisik pada tubuh ikan berupa memar akibat benturan dan luka terkena benda tajam merupakan jalan masuk bagi mikroba pembusuk untuk merombak daging ikan.

Cara penangkapan dapat menyebabkan ikan mengalami stress, baik akibat perlakuan kasar, tekanan atau kerusakan fisik. Apabila ikan mengalami stress, ikan membutuhkan energy yang besar, sehingga glikogen yang tersisa semakin sedikit. Akibatnya, ikan menjadi mudah mengalami penurunan kesegaran.

Kesuksesan dalam menghambat penurunan kesegaran ikan sangat dipengaruhi oleh penanganan awal yang diberikan terhadap ikan. Penanganan awal merupakan kombinasi antara pembuangan sumber penyebab proses pembusukan dan dilanjutkan dengan penyimpanan yang baik. Penanganan dapat berupa penyiangan, pendinginan, dan penggunaan beberapa senyawa kimia tertentu.

Kondisi lingkungan tempat penanganan juag berpengaruh pada proses penurunan kesegaran ikan selama penyimpanan. Sanitasi, temperature lingkungan dan kelembaban merupakan komponen yang berperan dalam perubahan setelah ikan mati. Peningkatan temperature lingkungan akan meningkatkan aktivitas enzimatis dan mikroba pembusuk, sehingga mempercepat proses penurunan kesegaran ikan.

Oleh karena penanganan dan penyimpanan harus dilakukan pada suhu rendah. Ikan yang disimpan pada suhu 5oC dapat mempertahankan kesegarannya sehingga dapat dikonsumsi hingga hari kelima atau keenam. Kondisi lingkungan Indonesia kurang menguntungkan bagi penanganan ikan segar. Kelembaban yang relative tinggi merupakan lingkungan yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan mikrobia, sehingga pertumbuhan mikrobia berlangsung cepat. (Qonita Ed Fikosa)

125 thoughts on “Kesegaran Ikan Pasca Panen

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