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MANFAAT SUSU BAGI KESEHATAN

apakah manfaat susu dalam kesehatan? temukan jawabannya dalam artikel berikut yang ditulis oleh Indahtul, alumni prodi Ilmu Gizi Unida Gontor yang saat ini sedang menempuh program master dalam bidang gizi di Universitas Sebelas Maret

Susu merupakan minuman kaya akan zat gizi yang memiliki efek positif bagi kesehatan dengan tingkat konsumsi di Indonesia sekitar ±3.91 juta ton dimana 56% dikonsumsi dalam bentuk susu segar, UHT, fermentasi, susu evaporasi dan krim

Susu memiliki kandungan zat gizi makro dan mikro nutrient yang tidak bisa disamaratakan antar spesies (seperti: sapi, kambing domba dan unta) karena perbedaan kebutuhan neonatus masing masing spesies. Susu memiliki berbagai kandungan zat gizi esensial seperti peptide biaoaktif, kalsium, bakteri probitik, protein spesifik, asam linoleate, asam organic, vitamin, antioksidan dan oligosakarida yang memberi manfaat diantaranya untuk mengatur fungsi pencernaan dan mengendalikan pertumbuhan mikroba.

Kebaikan susu dalam Al-Qur’an

Kandungan peptida bioaktif pada susu memiliki manfaat dalam fisiologis tubuh seperti yang telah tertulis dalam kitab suci umat Islam Al-Quran: “Dan sesungguhnya pada binatang-binatang ternak, benar-benar terdapat peljaran yang penting bagi kamu, Kami memberi minum kamu dari air susu yang ada dalam perutnya, dan juga pada binatang-binatang ternak itu terdapat faedah yang banyak untukmu, dan sebagian dari-nya kamu makan” (Q.S. Al-Mu’minun: 21).

Kandungan peptida bioaktif pada susu memiliki manfaat dalam fisiologis tubuh seperti yang telah tertulis dalam kitab suci umat Islam Al-Quran: “Dan sesungguhnya pada binatang-binatang ternak, benar-benar terdapat peljaran yang penting bagi kamu, Kami memberi minum kamu dari air susu yang ada dalam perutnya, dan juga pada binatang-binatang ternak itu terdapat faedah yang banyak untukmu, dan sebagian dari-nya kamu makan” (Q.S. Al-Mu’minun: 21).

Salah satu kandungan peptida bioaktif dalam susu adalah kasein. Kasein memiliki manfaat bagi kesehatan seperti antitrombolitik dan antihipertensi, antagonis penyakit degenerative otak, serta imodulasi dan antrimikroba pada sistem imun manusia.

Kasein merupakan salah satu komponen protein dalam susu dengan jumlah 80 % dari total protein susu. Kasein terdiri dari beberpa jenis yaitu α s1 -, α s2 -, β-, dan κ-CN dalam perkiraan rasio 38: 11: 38: 13. Setiap spesies memiliki susu dengan presentase kandungan jenis kasein yang berbeda-beda diantaranya seperti yang ditemukan pada  susu sapi, kambing, domba dan unta yang dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut:

Tabel Kandungan Kasein dan Protein pada Berbagai Jenis Susu Hewan Ternak per 100 g

Kandungan Gizi Susu Sapi Susu Kambing Susu Domba Susu Unta
Protein (gram) 3,4 3,7 5,5 3,71
Kasein (gram) 3 2,4 4,7 2,15 – 4,9
β kasein (%) 32,7 54,8 61,6 65
κ kasein (%) 11,6 20,4 8,9 3,5
α S1 kasein (%) 39,7 5,6 6,7 22
α S2  kasein (%) 10,3 19,2 22,8 9,5

Sumber : (Balthazar et al., 2017); (Brezovečki et al., 2015)

Manfaat kasein bagi kesehatan diantaranya yaitu

Kasein berhubungan dengan proses pencernaan kasein yang menghasilkan peptida bioaktif.

Pada pengaturan tekanan darah dan aktivasi respon imun, peptide bioaktif berperan dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen yang menggunakan kontrol epigenetik. Peptida bioaktif kasein akan berikatan dengan reseptor opioid, sehingga memblokir faktor nuklir κ-beta, meningkatkan potensi redoks, dan mengurangi stres oksidatif dan agen proinflamasi yang kemudian meningkatkan antioksidan dan antiinflamasi

Kasein juga dapat membentuk fosfopeptida yang meningkatkan penyerapan mineral terutama kalsium. Fospopetida berperan sebagai agen divalen yang membawa kalsium dan mineral karena adanya gugus unik dari tiga residu serin terfosforilasi dan dua residu glutamat.

Membantu penyerapan kalsium yaitu mengatur keseimbangan glukosa dalam darah.

Pemberian kasein selama latihan fisik juga dapat meningkatkan dan memperbesar massa otot. Hal ini dikarenakan pemberian protein atau asam amino (terutama kasein) akan merangsang MPS (muscle protein synthesis) saat  istirahat dan selama pemulihan olahraga. Selain itu, konsumsi protein dapat berperan sebagai stimulus utama dalam menjaga SMM (skeletal muscle mass) dalam kondisi istirahat dan meningkatkan SMM (skeletal muscle mass) dalam kondisi latihan. (Indahtul)

Baca Juga: Makanan untuk Imun Tubuh

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Al-Qur’an

Babault, N. et al. (2014) ‘Effects of soluble milk protein or casein supplementation on muscle fatigue following resistance training program : a randomized , double-blind , and placebo-controlled study’, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, pp. 1–9.

Balthazar, C. F. et al. (2017) ‘Sheep Milk: Physicochemical Characteristics and Relevance for Functional Food Development’, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16(2), pp. 247–262.

Bath, Z. F. and Bath, H. (2011) ‘Milk and Dairy Products as Functional Foods: A review’, International Journal of Dairy Science, pp. 1–12.

Cao, Y. et al. (2017) ‘Bioactive Peptides Isolated from Casein Phosphopeptides Enhance Calcium and Magnesium Uptake in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers Bioactive Peptides Enhancing Calcium and Magnesium Transport Corresponding Authors ’:, Journal Of Agricultural And Fodd Chemistry.

Farre, R. et al. (2006) ‘Casein phosphopeptides released by simulated gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas and their potential role in mineral binding’, International Dairy Journal, 16, pp. 992–1000.

Joy, J. M. et al. (2018) ‘Daytime and nighttime casein supplements similarly increase muscle size and strength in response to resistance training earlier in the day : a preliminary investigation’, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

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